If there is an increase in length of the material line, the normal strain is called tensile strain, otherwise, if there is reduction or compression in the length of the material line, it is called compressive strain. Infinitesimal strain theoryalso called small strain theory, small deformation theory, small displacement theory, or small displacement-gradient theory where strains and rotations are both small.
In this case, the undeformed and deformed configurations of the body can be assumed identical. Together, soil and rock mechanics are the basis for solving many engineering geology problems. The fieldwork is typically culminated in analysis of the data and the preparation of an engineering geologic report, geotechnical report or design brief, fault hazard or seismic hazard report, geophysical report, ground water resource report or hydrogeologic report.
In each of these theories the strain is then A description of engineering mechanics differently. Large-displacement or large-rotation theory, which assumes small strains but large rotations and displacements. The engineering strain is the most common definition applied to materials used in mechanical and structural engineering, which are subjected to very small deformations.
Physical insight into strains can be gained by observing that a given strain can be decomposed into normal and shear components. The infinitesimal strain theory is used in the analysis of deformations of materials exhibiting elastic behavior, such as materials found in mechanical and civil engineering applications, e.
Engineering geologists also provide geologic data on topographic maps, aerial photographs, geologic maps, Geographic Information System GIS maps, or other map bases. On the other hand, for some materials, e. The engineering geology report can also be prepared in conjunction with a geotechnical report, but commonly provides the same geotechnical analysis and design recommendations that would be presented in a geotechnical report.
Rock mechanics is the theoretical and applied science of the mechanical behaviour of rock and rock masses; it is that branch of mechanics concerned with the response of rock and rock masses to the force-fields of their physical environment.
An engineering geology report describes the objectives, methodology, references cited, tests performed, findings and recommendations for development and detailed design of engineering works. Finite strain theoryalso called large strain theory, large deformation theory, deals with deformations in which both rotations and strains are arbitrarily large.
An engineering geologist or geophysicist may be called upon to evaluate the excavatability i. Soil and rock mechanics[ edit ] Main articles: Strain measures[ edit ] Depending on the amount of strain, or local deformation, the analysis of deformation is subdivided into three deformation theories: Engineering strain[ edit ] The Cauchy strain or engineering strain is expressed as the ratio of total deformation to the initial dimension of the material body in which the forces are being applied.
The normal strain is positive if the material fibers are stretched and negative if they are compressed. This is commonly the case with elastomersplastically-deforming materials and other fluids and biological soft tissue. In this case, the undeformed and deformed configurations of the continuum are significantly different and a clear distinction has to be made between them.
Strains measure how much a given deformation differs locally from a rigid-body deformation. The fundamental processes are all related to the behaviour of porous media.
Soil mechanics and Rock mechanics Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies principles of engineering mechanics, e.
However, it is sufficient to know the normal and shear components of strain on a set of three mutually perpendicular directions. Hence strains are dimensionless and are usually expressed as a decimal fractiona percentage or in parts-per notation.
The amount of stretch or compression along material line elements or fibers is the normal strain, and the amount of distortion associated with the sliding of plane layers over each other is the shear strain, within a deforming body.Engineering Mechanics questions and answers with explanation for interview, competitive examination and entrance test.
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Fluid Mechanics 1 Dr. C. Caprani Fluid Mechanics 2nd Year Civil & Structural Engineering Semester 2 /7 Dr. Colin Caprani Chartered Engineer. Engineering geology is the application of the geology to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for.
Engineering geologists provide geological and geotechnical recommendations, analysis, and design associated with human development and.Download